Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 2021-11-24T08:01:00+00:00 Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJL2C/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of 'language, literature, and culture'. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Every volume of this journal will consist of 4 issues. Every issue will consist of minimum 5 papers. Each issue will be running issue and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. State-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> Reflection on the Experience of Adopting Qualitative Methodology in Business Management-Based Research 2021-06-17T06:13:08+00:00 Husam Helmi Alharahsheh Abraham Pius Muhammad Faisal Usmanj <p>The brief paper is providing a general reflective overview of different aspects that encounter researchers when adopting qualitative methodology for the purpose of their research within business management fields of study. It is briefly discussing how the researchers developed own epistemological position with details on epistemology, methodology, method, and technique applied during the research. Furthermore, the brief paper includes justification for the position developed based on the nature of the question raised for the intended research. Furthermore, the research included brief reflection on different ethical considerations that should be taken into account during the research process, and outlined possible measures and responses that could be applied by research to avoid ethical issues.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Poetry in (and after) Pandemic Times: An Ecolinguistic, Ecocritical Analysis 2021-06-17T07:24:45+00:00 Bahaa-eddin M. Mazid <p>Epidemics and pandemics are major events that affect and cause a lot of damage to human life. These events elicit responses at all levels, including that of literature. Covid-19 has thrown up many challenges - isolation, sickness and death of loved ones – but also has given some opportunities, e.g., to cherish normal life and show sympathy for others. The pandemic has elicited a large number of poetic responses, ranging from the very satirical to the very serious. The responses have had an unprecedented facility to go "viral" instantly. This article examines some of these "viral verses", or poetic responses to the pandemic, in English and Arabic based on a theoretical background of ecocriticism and (critical) ecolinguistics, whose major aims include the investigation of human values and attitudes to nature and the environment and the relationship and interactions between humans and their environments.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Philosophical Study of Figures in Mirza Khan’s Poems 2021-06-09T12:39:43+00:00 Sayed Asghar Hashimi <p>Pashtu Language poet, Mirza Khan’s poetry like the poetry of other poets of the world has a mention of figures. The mention of figures in his thoughts has relation with heavenly books, religions and philosophy school of Pythagoras. Most countries of the world have the same culture and many other things in common. For example, one of them is the mention of figures in poetry by the poets of the world. Every figure has its own meaning in various cultures. Similarly, figures have been mentioned in Mirza Khan’s Poetry for a specific meaning.</p> <p>This research has two parts. The first part is about theories and the second major part is about the mention of figures in Mirza Khan’s poetry and their meanings. Different figures and their meanings have been shown in his poetry a long with the meaning of his poems.</p> <p>The orders of materials, proper use of references in different parts of this research and ways of adoption have been properly used. The goal of this research is to write a new and scientific research article and to make it clear to the poets of other languages that Pashtu poets have also mentioned figures in their poems, some of which have common moral characteristics.</p> <p>This a library research meaning the materials have been taken from different books. After analysis and interpretation, the opinions of the author have been specified and the materials taken from other books have also been clarified and cited. The method of this research is explanatory and descriptive. The research findings and achievements help us conclude that figures have been mentioned in Mirza Khan’s Poetry and the research work is important because no-one has ever worked in this area of Pashtu Language. This is the first research work which is a short research of its kind.</p> 2021-06-09T12:38:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ways to Help My Students to be Better Readers 2021-07-10T10:48:04+00:00 Ugyen Tshering <p>This paper examined how to help the students develop good reading habits and become better readers. The researcher is currently working as the principal at Zungnye Primary School, Bumthang, and teaches English in class IV. He took a group of 19 students from class four and encouraged them to read newspapers, magazines, books, by organizing book talks, and encouraging them to share their views while doing reading activities. The researcher used face-to-face interactions, observations, survey questionnaires, and field notes.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The ultimate purpose of this action research was to help the students develop good reading habits and become better readers. To become better readers, they need to acquire appropriate reading skills, strategies, and techniques. Students will be able to read effectively and communicate through reading at an appropriate age level.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <ul> <li>To identify the reading disability in students.</li> <li>To explore factors affecting the reading habits of the students.</li> <li>To demonstrate appropriate reading skills, techniques, and strategies.</li> <li>To create a forum for students to read and share their reading.</li> <li>To motivate and encourage students to read.</li> <li>To develop school reading habits or culture.</li> <li>To develop a culture of reading habits in school.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Findings of the Research: </strong>Through this research, the following were some of the notable findings:</p> <ol> <li>Lack of moral help and support.</li> <li>Lack of encouragement for reading</li> <li>Not given enough time for reading</li> <li>Lack of appropriate reading materials in the schools.</li> <li>Reading materials are not easily accessible.</li> <li>Lack of constant reinforcement and support.</li> <li>Lack of modeling.</li> <li>Home factors that militate against the development of literacy.</li> </ol> 2021-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Critical Stylistic Analysis of Naming and Describing in Nigeria Budget Speeches 2021-07-15T05:13:44+00:00 Mufutau Adebayo Oseni Idowu Paul Odebiyi <p>The study identified and analyzed naming and describing (a linguistic feature) of budget speeches by the state governors in Nigeria and also described the themes and content of the speeches. It also discussed the implications of the underlying political ideologies, inherent in the speeches and related the themes and the stylistic tools to the Nigerian socio-economic situation. This was with a view to characterizing budget speech discourse in Nigeria and advancing the knowledge on its socio-semantic imports. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were obtained from selected state governors’ budget speeches in Nigeria. Budget speeches delivered in 2012 were selected because it was the year the country experienced the removal of oil subsidy without its inclusion in the budget. The data for this research consisted of twelve (12) budget speeches delivered by state governors in the country. The secondary data were obtained from books, journal articles and the internet. The data were analysed using Jeffries’ critical stylistic approach. The results showed that the producers of budget speech used wide range of linguistic features to express their stand point exemplified by naming and describing. The choice of words also extends to pragmatic concepts. The analysis of the linguistic features and the description of the themes and content of the speeches revealed that all the budget speeches used for the study were named or christened one way or the other such as budget of restoration, budget of transformation, budget of rescue, among others. It was discovered that positive naming was extensively used to bring about positive attitude towards the situations in the country. The themes and the stylistic tools were also related to the socio-economic situation of the country. The study concluded that governors utilized various semantic devices to represent political ideologies in different slogans using naming and describing in the financial statements of their states. Also, critical stylistics helped to give useful insight into the political dynamics of budget speech presentation.</p> 2021-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nizami Ganjavi and Turan (TO 880 Anniversary of the Great Poet) 2021-09-27T05:01:48+00:00 Parviz Firudin Oqlu Kazimi <p>Articles about the “concept” and “danger” of “Turanism” in political and publicistic works are often published in the international media, and this is so convincing that it has an impact on some scientific literature (history of literature, anthologies). In fact, on the contrary, materials obtained from scientific literature should be a source of political science and journalistic materials. In this context, we see that attempts to find a "brand" in historical research are still ongoing.</p> <p>We try to reveal the general picture, taking contradictions on this topic from the sources of the works of Nizami Ganjavi and Firdosi, as well as on the basis of existing historical documents. Has there ever been a state called Turan in history? If not, what was the source and purpose of this legend? If there was no Turan, how did Iran exist? Who won the war between Iran and Turan? If Firdosi knew this story, then why does Nizami write in his works the complete opposite of this story?</p> <p>As you can see, in addition to collecting tips from the works of Nizami and Firdosi to answer many questions, one can distinguish place names and ethnonyms from ancient mythology and Zoroastrianism and determine the true "threat" by creating a general picture, defining the history and geography of events.</p> <p>This article attempts to answer some questions by comparing a number of historical, literary events and positions (multicultural approach of the great poet, comparative analysis of creativity, etc.).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Influence of Arabic Culture on Betawi Arrominia Gambus, Indonesia 2021-09-28T06:23:41+00:00 Risydah Taqiyyah Maman Lesmana <p>This article aims to explain the mixed culture that occurs in <em>Betawi Arrominia Gambus</em> with the Arabic culture.&nbsp; <em>Betawi Arrominia Gambus</em> is a <em>gambus</em> music group from Betawi, Indonesia. Whereas <em>Betawi gambus</em> itself is a Betawi culture that results from a culture mixture.&nbsp; So it needs to be proven that this Betawi gambus gets influence from Arabic. In this study the writer used a qualitative research method with gathering data through library studies and field studies. Literature study in question is that the writer takes sources of data from written sources such as books, articles, journals, theses, newspapers. Whereas in the field study, the writer conducted interviews with one resource person and made observations by observing the appearance of <em>Betawi Arrominia Gambus</em>. The theory used in this article is combination or synthesis theory and acculturation theory. After conducting research it was found that in <em>Betawi Gambus</em> music there were several aspects which were influences from Arabic, such as in oud musical instruments, costumes and dance movements, documentary photos, and song lyrics.</p> 2021-09-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reading Habits of Grade V Students of a Primary School in Eastern Bhutan: A Case Study 2021-10-02T12:53:37+00:00 K. Dorjee Wangchuk . Choden <p>Reading is an intelligent interaction that incorporates thinking, information on right pronunciation and comprehension [1]. The compelling utilization of these abilities in a reading climate empowers readers to comprehend the content. The accomplishment of the reading cycle relies upon factors like understanding demeanor, the motivation behind reading, and earlier information on the content, the design of the content, knowledge on vocabulary; comprehension relies upon the reader's association with the content [2]. Reading is a deep-rooted ability to be utilized both at school and all through life. Reading is a fundamental ability. It is a foundation for a child’s accomplishment in school and, without a doubt, all through life. Without the capacity to read well, opportunity for individual satisfaction and occupation achievement definitely will be lost. I have carried out this research to examine the reading habits of 25 students studying in grade five in my school. The understanding of their reading habits would better equip the teachers to explore and identify the necessary interventions needed to enhance their reading habits. Therefore, I would like to undertake action research using model modified by [3] starting with reconnaissance and generating action research questions. The understanding of their reading habits would better equip the teachers to explore and identify the necessary interventions needed to enhance their reading habits. Above all, employing various intervention strategies and bringing up declining reading habits of these 25 students will be my top most priority.</p> 2021-10-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Use of Lexical Hedges in Academic Writing 2021-10-18T09:12:17+00:00 Muna Abdualhussein Obaida Chaqmaqchee <p>Currently, in the Iraqi context, it is observed that using linguistic devices is not an obvious consideration for many Iraqi English writers. Although the significance of these devices such as hedging which is the focus of this study in writing is beyond argument. In this sense, this study examined the types and frequency of lexical hedges employed by Iraqi writers in the introduction section of academic research articles in two different fields of study. To do so, a corpus of forty research articles published in two national journals were randomly selected. The procedure of the analysis and interpretation includes calculating the raw frequency of the hedging identifications and types in the introduction sections. The results show that hedges allow researchers to establish an early niche for their research. Also, the results indicate that there are significant differences between both groups in using hedging devices in writing the Introduction. The total number of hedging devices reveals that science writers employed hedging devices in writing the introductions more than humanities writers do. This indicates that science writers are more cautious in rejecting and/ or confirming ideas of others work. The present findings can be employed in teaching writing that is to show the importance of focusing on rhetorical structures rather than only on grammar. It also recommended that more national studies need to fill the desire of paying more attention to the other rhetorical devices that are important in academic writing to allow Iraqi research in all fields of knowledge to spread out internationally.</p> 2021-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Neamat Imam’s The Black Coat and its Implications on the Nationalist History and Culture of Bangladesh 2021-11-20T12:15:06+00:00 Morshedul Arifin <p>In recent decades, the apparently inviolable idea of a nation has become a subject of scrutiny in the Indian subcontinent. International and intranational conflicts in socio-political spheres of the region and the hegemonic rule by certain political ideologies has prompted a novel pluralistic view in the literary productions that has disrupted the long-held monolithic myth of nationalism. In recent times, a proliferation of Bangladeshi English fiction seems to have jumped onto the wagon of a different historiographical approach to existing nationalist metanarratives that have for so long stifled the voices that have developed their own nationalistic ideals. This paper explores how Neamat Imam’s <em>The Black Coat</em> (2013) deconstructs the history of the early years of post-independence, a forgotten time in the collective memory of Bangladesh. It demonstrates that a representation of peripheral people enables the novel to create an alternative historical narrative that stands in stark contrast to established history. The paper’s Subaltern leanings reinforce Imam’s rejection of the indemnification of traditional nationalist history.</p> 2021-11-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Language Choice and National Identity among Young Malay Students in a University Domain 2021-11-22T05:34:54+00:00 Obaida Chaqmaqchee Baraya Ibrahim Qi Zhaoguo <p>This study examined the relationships between national identity and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the university domain of language use. One hundred Malay undergraduate students were selected as participants of the study. The participant were between 17 to 25 years old. A questionnaire comprising three sections was used to gather information about participants’ demographic profiles, their language choices, and the concepts of their national identity. To investigate their language use and the relationships between variables, SPSS software was used. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the participants’ profiles, as well as participants’ used languages in the family domain of language use. A correlation coefficient analysis was used to examine the relationships between variables. The study found that the national language is dominantly used in their daily activities. Also, the national identity was found to influence the language choices of Malays.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigating Factors Affecting Students’ Interactions in Grade 11 English Classroom: The Case of Three Selected Secondary Schools in Tembaro Woreda, Ethiopia 2021-11-24T08:01:00+00:00 Alemayehu Wochato Wondwosen Tesfamichael <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting students’ interaction in grade 11 English classroom. The study was conducted at three selected secondary schools in Tembaro Woreda. It mainly focused on how students interact in English classroom, what does teachers’ do to maximize students’ level of interaction and what factors determine the level and nature of interaction. The subjects of this study were grade elven English language teachers and students in selected secondary schools. The data were gathered through questionnaire, interviews and classroom observations from 212 students, 6 English teachers and 12 observed classroom lessons. These data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative method. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentage and qualitative data were analyzed using narrative description. The findings of this study revealed that English classroom interaction was not properly implemented due to teachers and students’ lack interest and proper commitment to practice real interaction. Also the study identified that anxiety of &nbsp;foreign language, lack of motivation, lack of teachers’ dedication, fear of students’ to speak English language in the classroom, effect of classroom environment and shortage of instructional materials were the most common factors affecting students’ interaction in English classroom. As a result, the extent of interaction found in English classroom was minimized. Finally, it is recommended that English language teachers should raise their students’ awareness and use their maximum effort for encouraging students’ interaction.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##